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This volume--the second in a two-volume set from the Monitoring the Future study--provides findings on the substance use and related behaviors of several segments of the adult population. It also contains findings on attitudes and beliefs about drugs, as well as on several particularly salient dimensions of their social environments. Volume I presents similar findings for American secondary school students in grades 8, 10, and 12. One important segment covered here is the population of American...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Grants, College Students, Adults, Drug Abuse, Substance Abuse, Adolescents, Young...

This two-year study explored the academic lives of three boys in a combined fifth-sixth grade classroom. As these case studies illustrate, viewing students' academic worlds from multiple perspectives can lead to more accurate, comprehensive evaluations and efficacious adaptations of students' learning environments. Richard Snow's aptitude theory and Robert Sternberg's learning styles framework provided frameworks for data analysis and interpretation (Snow, Corno, Cronbach, Kupermintz, Lohman,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Data Analysis, Aptitude, Academic Achievement, Cognitive Style, Educational...

This issue of ERCMExpress presents the topic "Schools Respond to Infectious Disease." Every year, schools confront a range of infectious diseases such as chicken pox, lice, ringworm and seasonal influenza. In response, faculty and staff work together to control the outbreak, quell fears and dispel rumors. For example, school administrators may educate faculty about the disease, send notices home to parents to warn about the dangers of an outbreak and work collaboratively with the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Crisis Management, Child Health, Emergency Programs, Communicable Diseases, Planning,...

The 68th Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education was themed "Continuing Education: Making a Difference." The conference sessions explored continuing education's ability to transform lives, communities, and institutions while producing a strong return on investment. Speakers reflected on continuing education's power, offered techniques for enhancing program outcomes and impacts, and provided insights into the future of higher education in a global society....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Higher Education, Feasibility Studies, Distance Education, Continuing Education,...

In the fall of 2005, the New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM YRRS) was conducted in New Mexico public high schools, with 5,679 students in grades nine through twelve participating from 20 public high schools in the state. The NM YRRS is a tool that can assist administrators and policy makers in identifying health risk behaviors among students. The goal is to increase academic success by decreasing health risk behaviors that create barriers to student learning and may contribute to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, High Schools, Health Promotion, Prevention, Academic Achievement, Suicide, Public...

The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and contribute to major civic projects in Los Angeles. The Broad Foundations 2006 report covers the foundations' efforts in the areas of education, scientific and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Medical Research, Elementary Secondary Education, Audiences, Labor Relations, Public...

Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue of "Data Notes" looks at the relationship between institutional size differences at Achieving the Dream colleges. Nearly half of Achieving the Dream colleges are classified as small, but these colleges account for only 11 percent of students in the fall 2002 cohort. Only 29 percent of colleges are classified as large, but they account for 68 percent of students. This issue makes the point that while these...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Community Colleges, College Students, School Size, Geographic Location, Racial...

The relationship between good teaching and student achievement elevates the importance of teacher quality in the eyes of parents, educators, and policymakers. While some teachers may have a special gift to help students learn, good teaching encompasses critical elements, such as knowledge of the learning process, child development, teacher experiences, academic ability, and content knowledge. The notion of "highly qualified teachers" is the backbone of recently enacted U.S. federal...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Teacher Certification, Governing Boards, Federal Legislation, Educational Policy,...

Data were gathered from 65 teachers of students with learning disabilities to assess their perceptions of one of two school-based special education evaluation reports: a primarily deficit-oriented report or the same report with embedded protective factor (resiliency) information added. Results suggested that the learning disability teachers who reviewed the resiliency report were significantly more optimistic for the evaluated student than those teachers who reviewed the deficit report. In...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Special Education Teachers, Learning Disabilities, Teacher Attitudes, Student...

This paper takes on the question of whether and how school authorizers should be held accountable for their own performance. The author presents reasons why scrutiny and accountability are needed not only for schools but also for chartering agencies, identifies what types of accountability are present now, and offers ideas for ways accountability could be improved via private and government initiative. The author concludes that it is past time for increased scrutiny of charter authorizer...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Boards of Education, Accountability, Charter Schools, Quality Control, Federal...

The paper offers ideas for assessing and teaching English language learners (ELL)--English as Second Language (ESL, 2L, CLD) learners--through dynamic evaluation using children's literature. Given the increased demands within the general education classroom, the teacher needs ways to combine assessment procedures with effective instructional strategies. As part of a reading diagnosis model for data collection, annotated book lists of two United States (US) history content areas are presented....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Second Language Learning, Teaching Methods, State Standards, Reading Diagnosis,...

Andragogy, originally proposed by Malcolm Knowles, has been criticized as an atheoretical model. Validation of andragogy has been advocated by scholars, and this paper explores one method for that process. Current motivation theory, specifically socioemotional selectivity and self-determination theory correspond with aspects of andragogy. In conjunction, these two theories could be used to test and validate the model. This paper explains the correspondence of the motivation theories with...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Learning Theories, Motivation, Andragogy, Adult Learning, Self Concept, Social...

This directory contains 338 discretionary projects addressing the early childhood provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that received funds in 2005. It was compiled from 4 volumes separately published by the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY). The Research to Practice Division of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) administers the discretionary programs authorized by the Individuals with...
Topics: ERIC Archive, State Programs, Program Effectiveness, Program Improvement, Disabilities, Technical...

Efforts to monitor the progress of U.S. education and respond to its opportunities and challenges depend on reliable, accurate, and timely data. To provide such data, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) each year submits to Congress the mandated report, The Condition of Education. This year's report presents indicators of important developments and trends in American education. Recurrent themes underscored by the indicators include participation and persistence in education,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Indicators, School Statistics, Academic Achievement, Student...

"Heritage Keepers[R]" is an abstinence education program developed by Heritage Community Services of South Carolina and is among the 900-plus programs receiving federal funding under the Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Program. The "Heritage Keepers[R]" program provides a systemic approach to abstinence education through three main components: (1) the "Heritage Keepers[R]" Abstinence Education Component; (2) the "Heritage Keepers[R]" Life Skills...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Program Effectiveness, Sexuality, Family Life, Adolescents, Sex Education, Program...

This study addresses three questions: First, considering the full group of students and the special education subgroup, what is the likely effect of minimum cell size and confidence interval size on school-level Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) determinations? Second, what effects do the changing minimum cell sizes have on inclusion of special education students, especially for schools that are declared as "meeting AYP"? Third, with the NCLB requirement that schools assess grade levels...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Intervals, Educational Improvement, Reading Achievement, Achievement Tests,...

The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP) sets forth a vision for technology immersion in Texas public schools. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) directed nearly $14 million in federal Title II, Part D monies toward funding a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools through a competitive grant process. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student achievement improves over time as a result of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Middle Schools, Public Schools, Technology Integration, Academic Achievement, Pilot...

Even at land-grant institutions, faculty seldom work with commercial retailers on community programs. Retailers can help with outreach and engagement programs because they provide the "natural habitat" for consumers the programs seek to address. Allied health, family science, and interior design faculty at the Ohio State University worked with Lowe's Home Improvement Stores to bring information to the public on home modifications and universal design, a concept that advocates for...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Retailing, Interior Design, Allied Health Occupations Education, Consumer Economics,...

Although collaborative learning in the traditional classroom has faced criticism and resistance by students and teachers, most studies suggest that if it is implemented and facilitated properly, shared learning through collaboration can be an effective tool in how students learn. However, as more and more classes are being taught online, the concept of collaboration as a learning tool becomes problematic, especially in online professional writing courses where collaboration is a significant...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cooperative Learning, Writing Instruction, Online Courses, Group Discussion, Peer...

Confusion and furies about issues such as gender and sexuality present themselves as counternarratives about schooling. Rather than treat them as situations for educational administrators to manage or evade, the author proposes to use these counternarratives to fundamentally reframe educational leadership to be a profession proud of and skilled at interventions for social justice. Research and leadership generated by these avoided, marginalized, and suppressed truths will be powerful and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Social Justice, Educational Administration, Instructional Leadership, Controversial...

The purpose of this study is to examine an Africentric rite of passage program's impact on African-American male high school students. It is intended to determine whether a rite of passage program will affect attendance, discipline and achievement. The study also investigates the development of a school-based Africentric program as well as its outcomes. This intervention utilizes the principles of the rites of passage movement within African-American communities to focus on developing the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Afrocentrism, African American Students, Males, High School Students, Culturally...

The introduction of the SAT Reasoning Test™ with a writing section in March 2005 and the concomitant elimination of the SAT® Subject Test in Writing after January 2005 have led many colleges and institutions to ask for guidance in using the new SAT Reasoning Test writing section scores for college placement and admissions. Standard-setting methodologies provide one possible set of processes that can be used to identify point(s) on a score scale to divide a group of examinees into categories....
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Entrance Examinations, Logical Thinking, Thinking Skills, Placement, Student...

Assisting students with written work continues to be a challenging task for today's teachers. Outlining represents a relevant instructional technique to help students develop self-regulated writing skills and promote higher order thinking. The author shares writing advice that can be used by teachers working in traditional face-to-face environments and those facilitating online learning courses.
Topics: ERIC Archive, Writing Skills, Writing Instruction, Writing Strategies, Teaching Methods, Thinking...

Increase in enrolment of learners at the different levels of the educational system and particularly in the south-western Nigerian universities motivates this paper. The stretched facilities, infrastructure, poor funding and attitude of stressed teachers to adoption of new technologies affect quality teaching and thus demand the attention of instructional designers. It is felt that the application of modern technologies in teaching and learning, especially the interactive instructional design...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Foreign Countries, College Faculty, Teacher Competencies, Technology Integration,...

This report outlines three educational approaches: (a) "traditional," the currently dominant approach, a largely lecture-oriented, authoritarian style that makes heavy use of assessments "of" learning, which are useful for accountability purposes but only marginally useful for guiding day-to-day instruction; (b) "progressive," a highly student-centered approach that relies on assessments "for" learning, which can be very useful in guiding day-to-day...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Teaching Methods, Lecture Method, Conventional Instruction, Student Centered...

Chang and Zhang (2002, 2003) proposed several baseline criteria for assessing the severity of possible test security violations for computerized tests with high-stakes outcomes. However, these criteria were obtained from theoretical derivations that assumed uniformly randomized item selection. The current study investigated potential damage caused by organized item theft in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for two more realistic item selection methods, the maximum item information and the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Computer Assisted Testing, Adaptive Testing, Test Items, Computer Security, Crime,...

This article describes the resentment and jealousy that is sometimes exhibited by siblings of special-needs children, and the steps that can be taken by teachers and parents to help these children reestablish their social-emotional balance. Dr. Brodkin suggests that teachers be alert for opportunities to praise such children when they exhibit signs of cooperation, helpfulness, or consideration. Parents should make an effort to spend individual time with the child, and, if the situation does not...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Siblings, Young Children, Disabilities, Emotional Response, Family Relationship,...

Using movies to guide gifted students toward self-understanding provides them with numerous benefits. Movies have the potential to enrich and influence the lives of gifted students in constructive ways. A good movie, for example, can become a meaningful metaphor that explains the essence of a young person's dilemma. When an appropriate movie is combined with a discussion and supportive follow-up activities, gifted students may view their situation through a more positive lens, enabling them to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Films, Critical Viewing, Academically Gifted, Educational Resources, Guides, Self...

In spite of its prevalence and importance, questioning in education has been underestimated and misconceptualized. The major reason for this has been that most studies on questioning have been heavily dependent on the paradigm of positivism. The present study critiques the limitations of those studies on four specific issues: 1) the narrow conceptualization of the purpose of teacher's questioning, 2) the unwarranted assumption that objectively effective types of questions exist, 3) the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Misconceptions, Educational Research, Questioning Techniques, Epistemology, Classroom...

Canadian governments and various stakeholder groups are advocating greater interprofessional collaboration amongst health care providers as a fundamental strategy for enhancing coordination and quality of care in the health care system. Interprofessional education for collaborative patient-centred practice (IECPCP) is an educational process by which students/learners (or workers) from different health professions learn together to improve collaboration. The educational system is believed to be...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Change, Cooperation, Social Work, Professional Education, Occupational...

With the heightened interest in multiculturalism in higher education, universities and colleges have sought to become multicultural institutions by recruiting faculty with diverse cultural backgrounds. Consequently the faculty of formerly predominantly White colleges throughout the country have become more diverse and it is no longer unusual to find either foreign-born or minority professors in most departments. This has contributed to a growing racial, ethnic, and linguistic diversity among...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cultural Pluralism, Campuses, Multicultural Education, Educational Environment,...

Elementary students perceive scientists in stereotypical ways. This study examined the influence of historical, nonfiction trade books on children's images of scientists. Of the 13 self-contained third grade classrooms (n = 156), six randomly assigned teachers were instructed to read one trade book each week for six weeks to supplement their modular/kit-based instruction (n = 72). The other seven classrooms received only modular/kit-based instruction (n = 84). In the evaluation of their...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Childrens Literature, Nonfiction, Books, Grade 3, Elementary School Students, Student...

Results of a previous meta-analysis of gender differences in reading achievement at the secondary school level (Lietz, in press) showed significant differences between major assessment programs. Thus, the gender gap in favour of girls was more pronounced for the assessment programs conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Programs in the United States (NAEP), for the more recent assessment programs in Australia and the Programme for the International Student Assessment (PISA)...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Reading Comprehension, International Studies, Reading Achievement, Program...

This pilot study investigated the effects of allowing sixth-grade students in a rural south Georgia school to use stress balls during direct instruction and independent practice. Data from learning style inventories, surveys, journals, teacher observations, and formal assessments were collected for 29 sixth-grade students in a language arts class. Students were videotaped and observed for three weeks before the intervention and for seven weeks when they used the stress balls. The frequency of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Cognitive Style, Student Attitudes, Writing Ability, Teaching Methods, Rural Schools,...

Throughout the history of public schooling in the United States, maintaining democracy has been cited as one of the fundamental justifications for public support for schools. The pioneers of public education--among them Thomas Jefferson, Horace Mann, and John Dewey--argued that schools were, in fact, essential to the health and well-being of the republic. This is because relevant, problem-posing, multi-faceted education--democratic education--is central to democratic life; it is necessary for...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Citizenship, Democracy, Foundations of Education, Citizenship Education, Public...

At present, the development of Virtual Reality (VR) technology is expanding due to the importance and needs to use the 3D elements and 360 degrees panorama in expressing a clearer picture to consumers in various fields such as education, military, medicine, entertainment and so on. The web based VR kiosk project in Darulaman's Teacher Training College (IPDA) was developed as an alternative to the present widely web based systems. The kiosk system development in IPDA adopted the VR technology...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Internet, Computer Simulation, Information Technology, Web Based Instruction, Teacher...

Ninety-three college students discussed four case studies using two CMC modes--synchronous and asynchronous. Students completed a questionnaire that assessed: 1) perceptions and preferences with respect to CMC mode, 2) the personality characteristic of introversion-extroversion, and 3) previous experience using the Internet. Approximately 40% of students preferred synchronous chat rather than asynchronous discussion, 60% preferred face-to-face rather than synchronous chat, and 70% preferred...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Personality Traits, College Students, Case Studies, Teaching Methods, Questionnaires,...

To be economically secure, families need both income and assets. Regular income helps families pay for their daily living expenses. In contrast, families need assets to weather financial hardships and get ahead. Assets provide a safety net for coping with unanticipated expenses and emergencies that could otherwise cause significant financial hardship. Assets also help families build wealth and plan for the future by, for example, saving for retirement or investing in their children's education....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Low Income Groups, Family Income, Money Management, Economic Factors, Investment,...

When people once talked about culture, they meant knowledge, belief, art, morals, law and customs--the content of civilization. The word is still used in this way, for example, when referring to the cultures of different ethnic groups or nations. Today, when people talk about culture within organizations they often mean something more complicated. Culture within an organization usually means the customary and traditional ways of thinking and doing things, which are shared to some degree by its...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Organizational Culture, Research Projects, Check Lists, Consortia, Vocational...

The main purpose of this article is to generate a functional model of evaluation that EMSs can be able to empower online communications characterized by imperative decision making task. The evaluation process of EMSs must merge the multicultural strategies of the theory of Media Richness, and the ethical concerns of the critical approach. Media Richness Theory can empower online communications that resolve ambiguity, negotiate varying interpretations, and facilitate understanding. A critical...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Management Systems, Communications, Educational Administration, Research Design,...

This paper describes the findings of a qualitative research study examining the perceptions and practices of inservice teachers who blog. Open-ended interviews and electronic dialogues were conducted with 16 K-12 bloggers to identify emergent themes. A content analysis of each participant's Weblogs was conducted to confirm these findings. Findings suggest that when used by teachers, Weblogs can promote 1) reflective practice, and 2) collaboration and social interaction among users. Ethical...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Web Sites, Qualitative Research, Electronic Publishing, Elementary Secondary...

The purpose of this guide is to help experienced professional developers and others organize and conduct professional development that trains facilitators of National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) study circles. Promoters of the study circle facilitators training should be experienced trainers. This guide includes the information and materials necessary to conduct the training. There are two main sections in this guide: (1) The introduction "About Study...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Learning, Professional Development, Literacy Education, Evaluation Methods,...

The year 2006 has been a year in which a decision on the introduction of middle schools has been made by the Labor government of the Northern Territory. The initial impetus for the change came from the 2003 Secondary Education Review "Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory," chaired by Gregor Ramsay. There are many features of this change which will include both administrative and pedagogical aspects. Some comparisons with other systems which include a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Middle Schools, Educational Change, Educational Development, Comparative Education,...

The present study examined whether the association between teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and academic performance is mediated by their homework's self-efficacy beliefs and use of self-regulatory learning strategies. Path analyses were conducted. The final model revealed that teachers' self-efficacy beliefs have an indirect effect on their academic performance mediated by their sense of efficacy belief regarding their capability to initiate and complete their homework assignments and their use...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Learning Strategies, Homework, Academic Achievement, Self Efficacy, Self Control,...

In reviewing views on the use of L1 in L2 classrooms, the author argues for the benefits of using L1. The author argues for the benefits of written translation activities based on the ideas that translation uses authentic materials, is interactive, learner-centered, and promotes learner autonomy. The author also argues that written translation activities can be used as a post-reading activity to check learners' reading comprehension and provide items for future tests. A sample activity is given...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Translation, Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction, Reading...

A group of 20 practicing teachers were asked to define "unteachable" students. Their answers range from "students who lack interest, those facing problems in learning, those who refuse to accept changes, students who find it difficult to learn in formal environments, those who are unpredictable, defiant, show no interest in self learning, hyperactive, no patience to sit and listen, have short attention span, and are difficult to teach especially those with low IQ." This...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Teacher Attitudes, Student Characteristics, Student Motivation, Behavior Problems,...

Alice Miller, the former psychoanalyst, has gained world renown for her controversial and provocative writings on child rearing. Miller contends that traditional child rearing practices--in schools, ecclesiastical settings, and the family--consist of physical and emotional cruelty that she labels "poisonous pedagogy." According to Miller, children who are subjected to such treatment have no recourse other than to repress their anger, rage and resentment for their abusive parents. The...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Moral Values, Child Rearing, Emotional Development, Religion, Ideology, Child...

In developing the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a special effort was made to include questions that would help determine the extent to which the characteristics of professional development policies and practices were consistent with the emerging consensus on the key features of professional development as described by Hawley and Valli (2001). The survey addressed how professional development was organized and managed, what kinds of activities were available to teachers, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Faculty Development, Teacher Attitudes, Administrator Attitudes, Principals, Program...

The problem of learning programming subjects, especially through distance learning and E-Learning, has been widely reported in literatures. Many attempts have been made to solve these problems. This has led to many new approaches in the techniques of learning of programming. One of the approaches that have been proposed is the use of virtual pair programming (VPP). Most of the studies about VPP in distance learning or e-learning environment focus on the use of the synchronous mode of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Program Effectiveness, Foreign Countries, Programming, Open Universities, Distance...

Research shows that prior academic achievement is a strong predictor of future academic performance. For some students, the transition from one educational environment to another is associated with academic challenges and achievement loss. This study examined the extent to which achievement loss during the transition from middle school to high school later impacted college outcomes. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study 1988/2000 (NELS: 88/2000), the results from a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Academic Achievement, Achievement Gains, High Achievement, Longitudinal Studies,...

Women have increasingly become more involved in the workforce following World War II. Paid employment of women has shifted from primarily traditional female-oriented jobs to more non-traditional, and previously male-oriented careers. Women's participation in the workforce has lead to the study of career aspirations of women. Career aspirations are influenced by factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, race, parents' occupation and education level, and parental expectations. This review of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Females, Career Development, Occupational Aspiration, Womens Education, Womens...

The National Indian Education Study is a two-part study designed to describe the condition of education for American Indian/Alaska Native students in the United States. The study was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics for the U.S. Department of Education, with the support of the Office of Indian Education. This report, Part I of the study, presents the performance of American Indian/Alaska Native students at grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Educational...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Grade 4, National Competency Tests, Educational Indicators, Alaska Natives, American...

In summer 2004, the Head Start Bureau funded 24 Early Head Start programs to implement the Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Project, an initiative designed to support the quality of care that kith and kin caregivers provide to infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based Early Head Start programs. At the same time, an evaluation of these pilot programs was initiated. This interim report describes the early implementation experiences of the pilot projects. It is based primarily on site visits to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Pilot Projects, Early Childhood Education, Quality Control, Child Care, Home Visits,...

Introduction: This paper extends a series on summaries of Web objects, in this case, the alt attribute of image files. Method: Data were logged from 1894 pages from Yahoo!'s random page service and 4703 pages from the Google directory; an img tag was extracted randomly from each where present; its alt attribute, if any, was recorded; and the header for the corresponding image file was retrieved if possible. Analysis: Associations were measured between image type and use of null alt values,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Web Sites, Visual Aids, Metadata, Web Browsers, Information Retrieval, Correlation,...

The Connecticut public higher education community requests an overall general fund/operating fund budget of $1.95 billion for FY 2008 and $2.02 billion for FY 2009. In FY 2008, this includes general fund current service support of $717.7 million and other funding requests of $53.0 million. For FY 2009, the general fund current service request is $720.5 million and other funding requests are $76.5 million. The FY 2008 general fund current services budget request represents an increase of $64.1...
Topics: ERIC Archive, State Aid, Educational Finance, Higher Education, Budgets, Student Financial Aid,...

This paper discusses an exploratory study to investigate the existence, and nature, of student problem formulation and resolution processes in an undergraduate online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) course in Agricultural Sciences. We report on the use of a content analysis instrument developed to measure problem formulation and resolution (PFR) processes in online asynchronous discussions (Murphy, 2004a, 2004b) to analyze students' text-based, online discussions. The results offer evidence that...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Problem Solving, Problem Based Learning, Content Analysis, Teaching Methods,...

With American children on course to grow into the most obese generation of adults in history, Sonia Caprio argues that it is critical to develop more effective strategies for preventing childhood obesity and treating serious obesity-related health complications. She notes that although pediatricians are concerned about the obesity problem, most are ineffective in addressing it. Treatment should begin, Caprio explains, with a thorough medical exam, an assessment of nutrition and physical...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Medical Education, Graduate Medical Education, Obesity, Intervention, Physical...

Global economic competition and other factors have cost rural America 1.5 million jobs in the past six years. This brief analyzes job displacement figures from around the country between 1997 and 2003. The loss of rural jobs was particularly large in the manufacturing sector, and the rate of loss was higher in the rural Northeast than in the rest of rural America. The key causes fueling the trend have been the push for cost savings through automation and cheaper labor overseas. (Contains 6...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Rural Areas, Urban Areas, Manufacturing, Dislocated Workers, Educational Attainment,...

This study examines how social studies preservice teachers use pedagogical and technological applications and skills employed during their teacher education program, specifically the methods block. Data were collected from the methods course experience through student teaching and then through case study research with first-year teachers. Results indicate that technology skills and processes learned were transferred through time; however, expectations for teaching with technology and perceived...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Student Teaching, Methods Courses, Teacher Education Programs, Technology...

This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in establishing validity of alleged CSA. The shortcomings of the various behavioral/psychological assessment procedures and the issues of general...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Sexual Abuse, Psychological Evaluation, Child Abuse, Etiology, Psychology, Evaluation...

This E.D. TAB presents information about the biological fathers of children born in the United States in the year 2001. It is the first publication of findings using the data collected from fathers during the base year collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). It presents information on the demographic characteristics of resident fathers, their attitudes about fathering, and their engagement in their child's development. Technical notes and a glossary are...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Children, Fathers, Longitudinal Studies, Parent Child Relationship, Child...

National teacher shortages have driven the market for alternative means of teacher certification. This study sought to understand what mentorship means to 27 beginning teachers in a university-district partnership Alternative Certification Program (ACP) in an effort to understand the participants' perceptions. The process included administering and coding self report questionnaires, random selection and focus group interviews, data triangulation, and intense interaction over a 10 month period....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Alternative Teacher Certification, Phenomenology, Inquiry, Mentors, Beginning...

This paper reports upon a study on the effectiveness of participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) as perceived by 282 stakeholders in one school division in the Philippines. The study also examined the correlation between the indicators of PSALM effectiveness and the trust levels of the stakeholders. Questionnaires were used to gather data and responses were tabulated and analyzed using the SPSS. Findings show that the following indicators of PSALM effectiveness...
Topics: ERIC Archive, School Administration, Participative Decision Making, Trust (Psychology),...

This article assesses religion teaching as a profession in terms of selected characteristics that scholars agree are common to all professions. The characteristics that are addressed include essential service, call to serve, special knowledge and skills, specialized and advanced university training, public trust and status, code of ethics and performance standards, and professional organization. The research suggests that religion teaching satisfies two of the seven selected characteristics,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Religion, Religious Education, Catholic Educators, Professional Development,...

Alexis de Tocqueville's concept of the "tyranny of the majority" can benefit social justice pedagogies owing to its capacity to illuminate the silent, invisible character of hegemonic power. As many critical pedagogues have pointed out, this silent and invisible power seeps not only into the public spaces of education, but also into the private spaces of students' identities--as well as our own--shaping both what is discussed and what tends to go un-discussed within American...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Philosophy, Social Justice, Teaching Methods, Critical Theory, Self...

This paper describes the initial findings of a longitudinal case study that investigates the use of e-learning and communications technology to enhance the placement experience for full-time post graduate certificate in education (PGCE) students. It is a work in progress examining how a VLE might be used to support trainees while they are on placement. Geographically separated trainees can feel very isolated on placement. The purpose of the VLE site was to try to alleviate some of the...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education, Longitudinal Studies, Case...

Purpose: The paper deals with the study of students' computer literacy one of the purposes being demonstration the impact of the cognitive and non-cognitive personality traits (attention, verbal and non-verbal intelligence, emotional-motivational relationship with computer, learning strategies, etc.) on the quality of computer literacy. Methodology: The methodological foundation of the present study has been built on the notion of quantitative research developed in social and behavioral...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Program Effectiveness, Computer Literacy, Psychometrics, Personality Traits, Test...

This article from the "Journal of College Admission's" Special Diversity Issue (which in its entirety won the 1997 Muir Award), presents a compilation of three speeches, given at the 51st National Conference in Boston, Massachusetts. The preface, by Mary Lee Hoganson, serves to bind the three speeches together under the cohesive question, "Are college counselors social engineers?" Here, she stresses that colleges and universities have served an unparalleled role as social...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Admission Criteria, Admissions Officers, College Administration, College Admission,...

This research has been done to find out the factors influencing the students' successes in learning a foreign language (English). In other words, the effects of the methods and techniques, used by the teachers on the staff to teach the chosen foreign language, on the students' success. The main aim of our study is to make the foreign language teaching in secondary and high schools more effective and make it suitable by reducing the educational expenses for ones who want to learn a foreign...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Teaching Methods, Second Language Instruction, Language Teachers, Second Language...

This report outlines the results of a two year implementation of the Nebraska's Reading First initiative. Over three thousand six hundred students from Kindergarten to Third grade were included in the project. Results indicated significant growth across all demographic groups. Student performance in the earlier grades has shown great promise for later years. Growth in fluency and comprehension in grades 2 and 3 were not as impressive and require additional attention. The assessment results were...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Reading Programs, Program Effectiveness, Program Evaluation, Primary Education,...

A Nation at Risk, Goals 2000, and No Child Left Behind are examples of external factors that compel educational leaders at local schools and districts to explore reform initiatives in order to meet federally required results. Because of political mandates to improve student learning and instruction, educational leaders are searching for initiatives to ensure success for all children. A number of initiatives designed to improve student performance and the quality of teaching are available for...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Teacher Improvement, Teacher Collaboration, Federal Legislation, Educational...

This report presents results for the first trial school-district-level science assessment in NAEP at grades 4 and 8. Ten urban public-school districts voluntarily participated: Atlanta City, Austin Independent School District, Boston School District, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, City of Chicago School District 299, Cleveland City School District, Houston Independent School District, Los Angeles Unified, New York City Public Schools, and San Diego Unified. Student performance is reported in...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Grade 8, Measures (Individuals), Grade 4, Science Tests, School Districts, National...

This paper is one of a series being prepared by the Center for Law and Social Policy that is intended to inform the decisions of state legislators, program administrators, service providers, and advocates and to enable policy choices that simultaneously help low income families improve their labor market success and states meet federal participation rates. The paper summarizes the research on the contribution of skills and credentials to labor market success and the lessons learned about...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Credentials, Low Income Groups, Labor Market, Vocational Education, Welfare Services,...

The purpose of this study is to investigate elementary students' explanations of how physical features of the land influence the location of humanly defined structures including trade routes, such as the silk routes. The silk routes were a series of caravan trade routes that extended from Turkey to China and were located as far south as India and as far north as Russia. The trade activity on these routes ebbed and flowed depending on the protection available from the rulers of China. The routes...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Foreign Countries, Grade 4, Grade 6, Prior Learning, Topography, Maps, Bilingual...

Students with specific learning disability ("SLD") account for approximately half of all students that districts have determined to be eligible for special education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ("IDEA"). Since the late 1970s, the IDEA regulations have required states to use severe discrepancy--based on a comparison of the child's academic achievement, typically based on a standardized test, with the child's intellectual ability, typically based on...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Intervention, Standardized Tests, Learning Disabilities, Laws, Eligibility, Special...

This issue of the Emergency Response and Crisis Management (ERCM) Technical Assistance Center's "ERCMExpress" promotes emergency exercises as an effective way to validate school safety plans. Simulations of emergency situations, or emergency exercises, are integral to a sound school safety plan. They offer opportunities for district and schools to examine and strengthen their capacities for responding to various emergencies. By participating in different types of exercises, schools...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Drills (Practice), School Safety, Emergency Programs, Crisis Management, Formative...

"The Achiever" is a monthly newsletter designed expressly for parents and community leaders. Each issue contains news and information about school improvement in the United States. The highlights of this issue include: (1) Report Finds U.S. Higher Education in Need of Change; (2) Meeting a Critical Need: Foreign Languages, Academic Rigor Help Prepare Virginia Students for Global Marketplace; (3) Spellings Introduces Higher Education Plan; (4) Q&A: Academically Rigorous Courses;...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Higher Education, Educational Finance, Newsletters, Educational Improvement, Second...

"Education in emergencies" refers to a broad range of education activities, both formal and non-formal, which are life saving and sustaining. They are critical for children, youth and their families in times of crisis. Programmes for emergency education are often designed according to a specific environmental context and sometimes as temporary solutions. However, education in emergencies can also refer to long-term programmes that raise awareness and knowledge about chronic crisis...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Emergency Programs, Crisis Management, Risk Management, Gender Differences, Gender...

This fact sheet defines unintentional injuries and violence as the terms are used by the CDC and provides statistics on the leading causes of injury mortality and morbidity among children and adolescents, as well as information on the context of injury occurrence. (Contains 2 tables.)
Topics: ERIC Archive, Injuries, Violence, Definitions, Children, Adolescents, Child Health, Death, Suicide,...

ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education administrators and faculty; information technologists and those who depend on networked information; as well as anyone concerned with the future of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Higher Education, Web Sites, Electronic Libraries, College Libraries, Online Systems,...

To be prepared for the 21st century, it is critical that all students have sufficient knowledge of and skills in science. Studies suggest that high-quality teaching can make a significant difference in student learning. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) believes a high-quality science teacher workforce requires meaningful, ongoing professional development. To achieve this goal, schools and school systems must devote time and resources to effective professional development for...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Science Teachers, Science Education, Inservice Teacher Education, Faculty...

The Russian Federation has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world. Prevention efforts are still in the early stage, and to this date do not include a comprehensive, national HIV prevention education approach for direct application via the educational system. This study examined HIV/AIDS related knowledge of science teachers residing in an urban setting in Russia. Seventy-two teachers completed the HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Attitude Scale for Teachers as well as items related to...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Prevention, Knowledge Level, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Foreign Countries,...

Regardless of roles in society, people will be affected by what happens in the field of education in the coming decades. The impact may be personal and direct as a child or grandchild moves through the schooling process. Or, it may well relate to the quality of employees and, thus, chances for business success. Certainly, the impact the educational system in this country will have on the quality of all of lives is apparent. The knowledge gained, the work habits developed, and even the moral...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Governance, Educational Facilities Design, Educational Trends, Educational...

High school reform has moved to the top of the education policy agenda, commanding the attention of the federal government, governors, urban school superintendents, philanthropists, and the general public. All are alarmed by stubbornly high dropout rates, by the low academic achievement of many high school students, and by the large numbers of high school graduates who are required to take remedial classes in college. These trends disproportionately affect urban and certain rural areas and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, High Schools, Talent Development, School Restructuring, Low Achievement, Educational...

Under the Education Sciences Reform Act, all research, statistics, and evaluation reports conducted by, or supported through, the Institute shall be subject to rigorous peer review before being published or otherwise made available to the public. Prior to review and approval by the NCEE Commissioner, NCEE reports are reviewed internally by the project officer and selected NCEE evaluation staff. In addition, members of the technical working group who served as advisors to the research team...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Research, Peer Evaluation, Writing for Publication, Scientific Research,...

The authors present the results of a comprehensive evaluation of a model program co-sponsored by the Plymouth State University in New Hampshire, the Pakistani Ministry of Education, and the US State Department Office of Cultural Exchange, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. The evaluation included interviews with program planners, directors, funding agents, faculty, participants, and community members. The results indicate the achievement of an enhanced capacity on the part of Pakistani...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Program Evaluation, Demonstration Programs, Cultural Influences, Teachers, Teacher...

This paper examines the differences in perceptions of students and students' environments held by tenured teachers in a low socioeconomic status (SES) school and tenured teachers in a high socioeconomic status (SES) school. By comparing teachers perceptions of their students' characteristics and performance in a low SES school with the same characteristics in a high SES school, research will be conducted on the impact of this. Research will now be one step closer to reassessing the impact of...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Socioeconomic Status, Teacher Attitudes, Tenure, Low Income Groups, Social Bias,...

The Postsecondary Education Commission is currently examining the question of affordability at California's colleges and universities. It is a pivotal issue that is being debated both within and outside the higher education community. Clearly, the ability of students and families to finance a higher education is becoming a critical issue. This report addresses the "affordability crisis" in California higher education today. It served as a background piece for panel discussions that...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Higher Education, Costs, Educational Finance, Loan Default, Loan Repayment, Debt...

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed this guide to provide advice, ideas, and inspiration to teachers, school administrators, and others for planning a hands-on environmental day at school. Many of the tips and ideas in this guide come from "Make a Difference Day" events supported by EPA. EPA launched its "Make a Difference" campaign in October 2003 at an Environmental Symposium for middle and high school students held by the City of San Diego...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Environmental Education, Guidance Programs, Agency Role, Extracurricular Activities,...

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an early field experience program for undergraduate university students called classroom tutors in this project (CTs). Purpose: This study aims to measure the effects on CTs after their participation in Willing Workers in Classrooms (WWC). A second aim was to begin to develop a model for service learning specific to the needs of a bilingual school and university. Setting: The study took place at two elementary schools with a...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Field Experience Programs, Service Learning, Undergraduate Students, Tutors,...

The purpose of this state report card is to provide the general public and policymakers with information they can use to assess and improve postsecondary education in each state. "Measuring Up 2006" is the fourth in a series of biennial report cards. The report card grades states in six overall performance categories: (1) Preparation: How adequately does the state prepare students for education and training beyond high school?; (2) Participation: Do state residents have sufficient...
Topics: ERIC Archive, College Preparation, Enrollment, Access to Education, Paying for College, Student...

Leadership education has become the public education reform strategy of the new century. Spotlighting leadership education presumes that improved leadership preparation and development will yield better leadership, management, and organizational practices which, in turn, will improve teaching, student learning and student performance in schools and districts. But the "hows and whats" of leadership preparation have become hotly debated questions in recent years. While the research in...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Evidence, Research and Development, Educational Research, Educational Administration,...

This study focused on the perceptions of paraprofessionals regarding the roles they fulfill while working with children with disabilities in special education and inclusive settings. Students were in grades K-12 and represented a range of disability categories (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, serious emotional disturbance, development disabilities, and learning disabilities). Twenty-two paraprofessionals were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide to establish their understanding...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Educational Needs, Elementary Secondary Education, Semi Structured Interviews,...

In a movement toward workforce development as an academic entity, the identity of adult education as projects for inquiry is troubled. In some academic programs, adult education has been termed adult learning in the service of promoting teaching and learning for the workplace. However, adult education's inquiry, its projects, might be more than just teaching adults or researching how adults' learn. This paper presents an argument that adult education projects might have a social justice focus....
Topics: ERIC Archive, Adult Education, Adult Learning, Research Projects, Educational Research, Labor Force...

The goal of the middle school organization is to create a learning environment that matches the developmental abilities and needs of young adolescents. This research attempts to operationalize that goal by integrating reading and English classes in large urban middle schools. The Student Team Reading and Writing (STRW) program reconfigured instruction to actively engage students in learning. The program used cooperative learning processes to take advantage of the cognitive, social, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Reading Comprehension, Cooperative Learning, Learning Processes, Teaching Methods,...

Over the past decade, public attention on the importance of the civic development and education of youth has grown. To address these concerns, the East Bay Conservation Corps (EBCC) Charter School opened in 1996 with the explicit mission to prepare and engage students grades K through 12 as caring citizens who are capable and motivated to fully participate in our democracy. While content standards and assessments readily exist to articulate the academic and artistic development of students,...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Student Surveys, Identification, Elementary School Students, Thinking Skills,...

The problem is the perceived academic shortcomings of America's public schools because of high stakes testing that is expected to increase along with limited funds and resources. The purpose of this study was to find the benefits of the extracurricular activity that students are already participating in at Paramount High School. This is a quantitative study looking at the cumulative GPA's, standardized test scores in mathematics, and standardized test scores in English/Language Arts of students...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Standardized Tests, Music, Music Education, Grade Point Average, Extracurricular...

The study examined students' perceptions of social presence in online and face-to-face course environments. Data from surveys of 112 undergraduate students (80 in online, 32 in face-to-face classes) are presented. Statistical tests include t-tests and ordinary least squares regression tests. Students' perceptions of social presence were similar in the online and face-to-face sections, and predicted their learner satisfaction scores. Experience in online courses had a statistically significant...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Undergraduate Students, Computer Mediated Communication, Student Attitudes, Online...

This article presents the author's comments on ""Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later" by J. J. Cannell, MD. J. J. Cannell's article on the so-called "Lake Woebegone" effect for K-12 educational testing systems is mostly an historical account of technical issues and policy considerations that led in part to development of new types of test instruments for K-12 testing, i.e., standards-based tests. However, this article also comments on current testing practices, and...
Topics: ERIC Archive, Elementary Secondary Education, Educational Testing, Standardized Tests, Test Use,...

School counselors should be knowledgeable about the influence of today's technologies on common issues dealt with in counseling. This article describes several of these issues and how they are affected by use of technology. Suggestions are provided to help counselors deal with the current challenges posed by the use of interactive communication technologies.
Topics: ERIC Archive, Counselor Role, School Counselors, Technology Uses in Education, Counseling,...